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Aquarium gravel
The substrate of an aquarium refers to the material used on the tank bottom. It can affect water chemistry, filtration, and the well-being of the aquarium's inhabitants, and is also an important part of the aquarium's aesthetic appeal. The appropriate substrate depends on the type of aquarium; the most important parameter is whether the aquarium contains fresh water or saltwater.

Functions and considerationsEdit

Substrates are added to most aquaria principally for the increase in beneficial bacteria this provides. However, substrates can also have a variety of direct effects on water quality by releasing substances into the water, absorbing substances from the water, or reacting chemically with substances from other sources. Substrates can also have indirect effects on a system's health; dark-colored substrates, for example, are considered by some to be better for fish, as the fish display more colorfully by comparison, and are less likely to behave timidly. Apart from all other considerations, substrates are frequently chosen for their aesthetic qualities.

Some substrates are used to alter water chemistry. Crushed coral and coral sand both contain calcium carbonate, which will raise the carbonate hardness and buffer the pH. Peat may be used in some aquaria to mimic some soft water habitats.

Substrate may also be used as part of a biological filtration system. Beneficial bacteria colonize all aquarium surfaces that are exposed to aerated water, including the substrate. Because the numerous particles have a high surface area, substrates are often employed in biological filtration. Some common types of filtration involving the substrate include the undergravel filter and the deep sand bed.

Planted tanks require a substrate that will remain loose enough for plant roots to penetrate it. The substrate should be chemically inert and free of sharp edges. Fine gravel (1–2 mm) is preferred by some aquarists because coarser substrates allow debris to settle within the gaps between grains, which is particularly difficult to clean in a planted aquarium. Sloping the substrate so it is most shallow in front accommodates larger plants with correspondingly larger root systems in the back. The substrate for plants should be at least 5 cm (2 in) deep. Often, a lower layer of richer substrate such as potting soil, peat, vermiculite, or certain types of clay are used as a source of iron and trace elements for plant roots.

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